The Kushite Triad in Thebes consisted of Amun, Mut, and their adopted son Khonsu.


Amun – The Father

Thebes, which is known to have been founded by a colony of Ethiopians, was called the City of Ammon [Amun]. The origin of the Egyptian divinities may be traced to Ethiopia.  (Waddington 1822, p. 185)

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(Note: Amun (also spelled Amen) is an Ethiopian divinity, later called Zeus Ammon by the Greeks, and Jupiter Ammon by the Romans. Some scholars use the Roman name “Jupiter Ammon” when referring to the Ethiopian/Kushite “Amun”.)


(Note: “Jupiter and Jehovah [YHWH] are one and the same, both implying the supremacy of the unity.”  (Melville 1863, p. 61))


(Note: Greeks are found to have a substantial relatedness to sub-Saharan (Ethiopian) people. The time period when these relationships occurred might be related to the displacement of Egyptian-Ethiopian people living in pharaonic Egypt. (Arnaiz-Villena 1998)


Dr. Lewis Gordon states, Amun rose to prominence during the Middle Kingdom (see chapter 2), and that Amun means “hidden”.

“Syria . . . is called Sham after Shem, its people’s ancestor, worshiped as Jupiter Ammon [Amun], and suggests that Kush was the son of Shem . . . “.  (Meakin 1901)


Furthermore, Shem written in Hebrew is nearly identical in appearance to Allah written in Arabic (added and circled in red). (Both languages are read from right to left.)


In Qur’an, the very first word, bismillah, contains Shem in its Arabic form, sm.  (Heeks, 2012)


Mut – The Mother

Mut means “mother”. She was the destroyer of Amun’s enemies.


Mut was associated with the moon.


Pictured below, the crescent moon shaped lake adjacent to the Mut Temple in Thebes, on the east bank of the Nile, in South Karnak.

van Rensselaer-Mut-Precinct-Crescent-Lake-Ch3

Mut’s manifestation on Earth is “kingship” (male authority).


When the above “Hymn to Mut” is compared to the Surah 112 of Qur’an, the similarities are clearly evident. Qur’an, however, presents the message from a male authority perspective.  Also recall, “Mut did not bear Khonsu but adopted the younger god .”   (Lesko, 1999, p. 132)

Surah 112 Maududi

Additionally, Surah 114 (An-Naas) refers to Allah as, among other titles, “the King of mankind”.

Surah 114 Maududi

Khonsu – The Son

Khonsu is comparable to the Nile Valley civilization lunar deities Iah and Djheuty (Thoth), symbolized by the crescent moon, the ibis, and the falcon.


In Hebrew, “Iah” (pronounced as “Yah”) is a shortened form of YHWH, and is a prefix or suffix to many Hebraic names, for example Isaiah.


Pictured below, a rare bronze Khonsu-Djheuty composite from the Egyptian late period, on display at the Michael C. Carlos Museum at Emory University, in Atlanta, Ga.


Khonsu (Khons) is also associated with the star Canopus.


Similarly, the Black Stone of the Kaaba in Mecca faces Canopus.


Below, a satellite view of the central square in Mecca, showing the alignment of the Kaaba’s south-east corner, where the Black Stone is located, with Canopus.


Chapter 53, verse 49, of Qur’an says,

“And that He, He is the Rabb of Ash-Shera”.

There are two stars with the name Ash-Shera, and both together are called the two Sisters of Suheyl [i.e. Canopus]; and hence Allah is said in Qur’an to be the lord of Ash-Shera.  (Lane 1863, p. 1560).


The “crescent and star” symbol commonly associated with Islam represents the Kushite triad of Amun, Mut, and Khonsu.


Below, the Kushite triad of Amun, Mut, and Khonsu shown on the Nation of Islam flag.  (Muhammad, E., 1934)

“The religions of the ancient Cushites were full of their deified ancestors and their legends and the celestial Zodiac.”  (West 2009, p. 118)



Traces of Ancient Kush have been found worldwide. In the work of John G. Jackson, it is referred to as the Archaic Civilization.


Some historians are of the opinion that the Kushites (Aithiopik races) (Forlong 1883, p. xxiv) are the earliest branch of the human family, and originated in Central America.

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Geneticists have discovered the A00 y-chromosome in North America, which is older than both, all known modern human DNA, and all known anatomically modern human fossils. The A00 lineage was discovered in a large database of consumer samples of African Americans, and has not been identified in traditional hunter-gatherer populations from sub-Saharan Africa.


“From the haplotypes analysis it seems that a whole series of haplogroups, namely A00, A0, A1a, and A1b1 have moved to Africa from non-African regions…”.   (Klyosov 2014)

Klyosov-A00-Non African


In Qur’an 38:3-5, the Arabians who rejected Muhammad questioned, “Has he made the gods one single God?”.

Surah 38.3-5 Maududi

Above, Qur’an applies the plural pronoun “We” to Allah. In the Bible there are many deities referred to by the common noun “Elohim” (‘Elohiym).


Elohiym (Strong’s H430) is the plural of Eloah (Strong’s H433).


Eloah (Strong’s H433) is prolonged from El (Strong’s H410). Both are commonly translated as, deity, or as God.


However, there are a number of passages in the Old Testament where Elohim cannot reasonably be translated god or gods.   There is evidence that Elohim means, ancestors.  (Hodge 1971)


It seems that the term Elohim might in some cases also refer to divinized ancestors. (Parsons 2012, p.6)

Elohim pertains to the separate elements as Creator, Preserver, and Regenerator [Father, Mother, and Son]. El represents the abstract principle taken collectively, as one.


El, Eloah, and Elohim are Shemitic (Semitic) cognates of Allah.



Kushite usage of the “crescent and disc” symbol dates back to 1st millennium B.C.E.


Below, an artifact containing the “crescent and disc”, discovered on the mound of Ziban Adi (c. 1st millennium B.C.E.) near the village of Meqaber Ga’ewa, in the Ethiopian highlands.


The “crescent and disc” is also found on 3rd century CE Kushite (Aksumite) coins.



Below is the national flag of Turkey adopted in  June of 1936, which contains the “crescent and star” symbol.


Turkey also has ties to Kush. Based on the evaluation of anthropological, historical, and linguistic evidence, Dr. Clyde Winters concludes that the ancient Anatolian population is the result of an ancient Kushite migration.


4 thoughts on “Chapter 3 — KUSHITE ORIGINS of ISLAM”

  1. Re Kaaba alignment to Mecca
    Canopus does not rise at summer solstice
    It culminates at 9 pm on February 11 and at midnight on December 27.
    Canopus can’t be seen from most locations in Europe and North America. Observers in northern latitudes south of 37°N can find the star below Sirius in the southern sky on winter evenings.


    1. art Laing

      The two sources given do not say Canopus rises at the summer solstice. Al-Azmeh says, qabul winds correspond with summer solstice, and janub winds correspond with the rising of Canopus. Penprase says, “the central square in Mecca building” is aligned with the summer and winter solstice. and “one side” faces Canopus.


  2. Crescent and star symbols are not the real symbols of İslam. By the way, Islam has “no” symbols at al. Even prophet’s picture has not drawen ever. The caba is not square in original, it was a rectangle shape in golden ratio dimentions. It demolished once then built like square. The half circle represents the unbuilt area. In Quran, many times tells us about previous prophets, over one hundred thousands. There are named the major prophets. You can see many similarities with previous “one creator” religions, as well as Amon.


    1. Fahrettin Kılıç

      I agree that the crescent and star is not a symbol of Islam. My wording is,

      “The “crescent and star” symbol commonly associated with Islam represents the Kushite triad of Amun, Mut, and Khonsu.”

      Examples of this association include this symbols placement on, the flags of numerous Muslim nations, and on mosque minarets and domes across the world. What my sources show is, Islam, and the crescent and star symbol commonly associated with it, have Kushite origins.

      Based your comments about the Kaaba, I realize I did not use the proper wording. I will reword, “the Kaaba in Mecca is aligned with Canopus”, to “the face of Kaaba Stone in Mecca is aligned with Canopus”.

      Thank you for your input.

      Yaw Manu El


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