* = work cited in chapter of website

*Abyssinia — The Mission to Shoa (1844). The Dublin University Magazine: A Literary and Political Journal, 24 (141), 253-267.

*Advertisement card for the “Great Negro Mart” in Memphis, Tennessee [Photograph]. (1859-1860). Slavery and Freedom Objects, Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Washington, D.C.

*Afroz, S. (1999). The Manifestation of Tawhid: The Muslim Heritage of the Maroons in Jamaica. Caribbean Quarterly, 45(1), 27-40.

*Ahmed, A. S. (2002). Discovering Islam: Making Sense of Muslim History and Society. UK: Taylor & Francis.

*Ahmed, S. (2012). The Qurʼan As It Explains Itself. Lauderhill, FL: Galaxy Publications.

*Al Fadli, A. (2011). Introduction to Hadith (2nd ed.). London: ICAS Press.

*Al-Jahiz, A. (1981). The Book of the Glory of The Black Race. (Trans. Cornell, V.) The Preston Collection.

*Al-Jubouri, I.M.N. (2004). History of Islamic Philosophy: With View of Greek Philosophy and Early History of Islam. Hertford, England: Bright Ben.

*Allam Z. (2020). The First 50 days of COVID-19: A Detailed Chronological Timeline and Extensive Review of Literature Documenting the Pandemic. Surveying the Covid-19 Pandemic and its Implications, 1–7. Retrieved from:

*Allen, J.P. (2010). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. (n.p): Cambridge University Press.

*Alpers, E. (2014). The Indian Ocean in World History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

*Alryyes, A. (ed., trans.) (2011). A Muslim American Slave: The Life of Omar Ibn Said. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

*”Ancient Man and His First Civilizations.” Canaan: The Black Hyksos and Hebrews. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2016. <>.

Architecture in Spain The Muslim Influence. (2012, April 18). Retrieved from

*Arenal, M. (Ed.). (2014). Expulsion of the Moriscos from Spain: A Mediterranean Diaspora. Brill.

*Arnold, D. (ed.) (2015). Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

*Arnold, J. (1866). The Koran and the Bible; Or, Islam and Christianity (2nd ed.). London: Longmans.

*Asante, M. (2007). The History of Africa: The quest for eternal harmony. New York: Routledge.

*Ash-Shanawi, A.A. (2004). Ministers Around the Prophet. Riyadh: Maktaba Dar-us-Salam.

*Baedeker, K. (Ed.) (1892). Egypt: Upper Egypt, with Nubia as far as the Second Cataract. Leipsic: Karl Baedeker.

*Barton, S. (2003). A History of Spain. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

*Bekerie, A. (1997). Ethiopic, an African Writing System: Its History and Principles. Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea Press.

*Bekerie, A. “Ethiopica; Some Historical Reflections on the Origin of the Word Ethiopia.” International Journal of Ethiopian Studies, vol. 1, No. 2 (Winter/Spring) (2004). 110-21.

Bertonis, G. (2010). Stone Age Divas: Their mystery and their magic. S.l.: Authorhouse.

Bianchi, R. (2004). Daily Life of the Nubians. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

*BibleGateway. (n.d.).

*Black, J. (2011). A Brief History of Slavery. Philadelphia: Running Press Book.

Blavatsky, H. (1978). Secret Doctrine: (Three Volumes in a Slipcase) (Vol. I). IL: Theosophical Publishing House.

*Blyden, E. (1994). Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race. Baltimore: Black Classic Press.

Brown, J. (2009). Yahweh, Zeus, Jupiter: The High God and the Elements. Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, 106(2), pp. 175-197.

*Brugsch, H., Seymour, H. D., & Smith, P. (1881). A History of Egypt Under the Pharaohs (Vol. II). London: John Murray.

*Büchner, S. (2006, September 22). Before Aksum: Excavating Ethiopia’s Earliest Civilisation (T. Matthews, Ed.). Current World Archaeology, (79), 14-21.

*Budge, E.A.W. (2014). A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia (vol. 1). New York: Routledge.

*Budge, E.A. (2010). An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary (Vol. II). New York: Cosimo Classics.

Calmet, A. (1832). Calmet’s Dictionary of the Holy Bible. (Taylor, C., trans.). Boston: Crocker and Brewster.

*Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID Data Tracker. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2022, December 05.

*Chai-Lien, L. (1921). The Arabian Prophet: A Life of Mohammed from Chinese and Arabic Sources. A Chinese-Moslem Work. (trans. Mason, I.). Shanghai: Revell Co.

*Chaplin, G. “Geographic Distribution of Environmental Factors Influencing Human Skin Coloration”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 125:292-302, 2004.

*Chaurasia, R. (2006). History of Middle East. New Delhi: Atlantic Publ. & Distributors.

*Cobb, P. (Ed.)(2012). The Lineaments of Islam. Leiden: Brill

Cook, J. (2009). Septuagint And Reception: Essays prepared for the Association for the Study of the Septuagint in South Africa. Leiden: Brill.

*Coppee, H. (1892). History of the Conquest of Spain by Arab-Moors (Vol. 2). Boston: Little, Brown, & Company.

*Curtis, V. & Stewart, S. (eds.) (2009). The Rise of Islam. New York: I.B. Tauris.

*Dame, F. (2013). Muslim Discovery Of America. S.l.: Books On Demand Gmbh.

*Danver, S. (2011). Popular Controversies In World History: Investigating history’s intriguing questions. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.

*Davies, C. (2008). Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora Origins, Experiences, and Culture (Vol. 1). Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.

*Diaz-Mas, P. (1992). Sephardim: The Jews from Spain. Zucker, G. (trans.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

*Diop, C. (1974). The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality. New York: L. Hill.

*Diop, C. (1987). Precolonial Black Africa: A comparative study of the political and social systems of Europe and Black Africa, from antiquity to the formation of modern states. Westport, Conn.: L. Hill.

*Drews, C., & Han, W. (2010). Dynamics of wind setdown at Suez and the Eastern Nile Delta. PloS one, 5(8), e12481. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012481

*DuBois, W. (2001). The Negro. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

*Egyptian bronze figure of Khonsu. [Art found in Egyptian Art, Sasson Ancient Art]. (late dynastic period: 8th – 4th century bc). Retrieved from

*”Egyptian Mythology.” Egyptian Mythology. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2016. <>.

*Elhadj, E. (2008). The Islamic Shield. Boca Raton, FL: Brown Walker Press.

*El-Hibri, T. (2010). Parable and Politics in Early Islamic History: The Rashidun Caliphs. New York: Columbia University Press.

*Elias, D. (2014). The Tigre Language of Gindaˁ, Eritrea: Short Grammar and Texts (vol. 75). Leiden: Brill.

Elwell, W. A., & Comfort, P. W. (Eds.). (2001). Egypt, Egyptian. In Tyndale Bible Dictionary. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House.

*Encyclopædia Britannica. (n.d.). The Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt [Image]. Retrieved from

*Estes, R. J., Goins, J. H., Ferguson, P., & Crain, J. L. (Fall, 2011). Melungeons, A Multi-Ethnic Population. Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 7.

*Etine, J. (2007). Abraham’s Children: Race, Identity and the DNA of The Chosen People. New York: Hatchet Book Group.

*Evans, C. (2013). Black Bloodlines: Abraham and the Racial Profiles of the Ancient Hebrews. Sag-gig-ga Publishing.

*Falola, T. & Jean-Jacques, D. (Eds.). (2016). Africa: An Encyclopedia of Culture and Society (Vol. I). Santa Barbara, CA. ABC-CLIO.

*Fels, U. & Sidibe, B. (2017). Changing Times: A West African Patriarch Tells His-Story. Hamsburg, Germany: Tredition.

*Fields, N. (2007). Soldier of the Pharaoh: Middle Kingdom Egypt 2055 – 1650 BC. Oxford: Osprey.

Floyd, W. (1873). Places in South China, Hong Kong, Macao and Japan. Photographs by William Pryor Floyd, no. 32. Hong Kong: W.P. Floyd.

*Fluehr-Lobban, C. (1988). Ninth International Conference for Nubian Studies. In Nubian Queens in the Nile Valley and Afro-Asiatic Cultural History. Boston.

*Ford, M. (2013). Necrominon – Egyptian Sethanic Magick. Isle of Man, UK: Succubus Productions.

*Forlong, J. G. R. (1883). Rivers of Life. United Kingdom: Рипол Классик.

*Francaviglia, R. (2014). “Far Beyond the Western Sea of the Arabs…”: Reinterpreting Claims about Pre-Columbian Muslims in the Americas. Terrae Incognitae, 46:2, 103-138

*Gadalla, M. (2003). Historical Deception: The Untold Story of Ancient Egypt (2nd ed.). Greensboro, NC: Tehuti Research Foundation.

Gaisford, T. (1824). Notes on Herodotus. (Volume I). London: W.B. Whittaker.

*Gallque, S. (1599). Los Mulatos de Esmeraldas [Painting found in Museo de América, Madrid]. J. O. Ubeda (Photographer). Retrieved from

*Gamble, E.B. (1897). The God-idea of the Ancients. New York: Putnam

*Ganor, N.R., Ganor, N.R. (2009). Who Were the Phoenicians? (p. 196). Israel: KIP – Kotarim International Publishing.

*Gesenius, W. (1893). Gesenius’s Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures (Tregelles, S.P., trans.) New York: John Wiley & Sons.

*Genographic Project by National Geographic, The – Human Migration, Population Genetics. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Gerwitz, E. (2012). Honour of Kings Ancient and American History. Lulu.

*Giontzis, A. (n.d.). Pond and fountain of Gardens of Mercury [Photograph found in Diego De Esquivel, Alcázar de Sevilla]. Retrieved from

*Goldenberg, D. (2003). The Curse Of Ham Race And Slavery In Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

*Gordon, B. (1919). New Judea: Jewish Life in Modern Palestine and Egypt. Philadelphia: Oser Bros.

*Gordon, J., & Gordon, L. (2006). A Companion to African-American Studies. MA: Blackwell Publishing

*Graham, J., Polastron, L.X. (2007). Books on Fire: The Destruction of Libraries Throughout History. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions.

*Greene, L. & Gunther, L (1997). The New Jersey African American History Curriculum Guide Grades 9 to 12. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Historical Commission, Department of State.

*Greiner, T., & Taylor, B. (2017). Egyptian obelisks from the reigns of Hatshepsut and Thutmose I at Karnak Temple [Photograph]. Obelisks in Ancient Egypt, Nile Scribes.

*Gross, A. (2007). “Of Portuguese Origin”: Litigating Identity and Citizenship among the “Little Races” in Nineteenth-Century America. Law and History Review, 25(3), 467-512.

*Guarak, M (2011). Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

*Guthrie, J. (1899). Camp-fires of the Afro-American. Philadelphia: Afro-American Pub.

*Hain, K., Gordon, M. (eds.)(2017). Concubines and Courtesans: Women and Slavery in Islamic History. United States: Oxford University Press.

*Hansberry, W., & Johnson, E. (1964, November 1). Africa’s Golden Past. Ebony, 30-39.

Harkless, N. (2006). Nubian Pharaohs And Meroitic Kings: The Kingdom of Kush. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

*Harris, D. (2013). The Queen Of Sheba Legend, Literature, And Lore. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company.

*Hart, G. (2005). The Routledge dictionary of Egyptian gods and goddesses (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

*Hart, M. (1992). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. New York: Citadel Press.

* Hawting, G. (2000). The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750 (2nd ed.). London: Routledge

*Hebrew Lexicon. Retrieved from

* Heeks, A. (Spring, 2012). Desert Wisdom: Nomadic insights for modern life. Network Review, 23.

*Hirschman, E. (2005). Melungeons: The Last Lost Tribe in America. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press.

*Hodge, C. (1971). Is Elohim Dead? Anthropological Linguistics, 13(6), 311-319. Retrieved from

*Hopkins, P. (2007). Sudan, Land of Cultures. In The Kenana Handbook of Sudan. London. Kegan Paul.

*Hourani, G. (1995). Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times (Expanded ed.). Princeton: Princeton University Press.

*Houston, D. (1926). Wonderful Ethiopians of The Ancient Cushite Empire. Oklahoma City: University Press of America.

*Ingram, K. (ed.) (2012). The Conversos and Moriscos in Late Medieval Spain and Beyond (vol. II). Leiden: Brill.

*Insoll, T. (2003). The Archaeology of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

*Interlinear Scripture Analyzer 3 (2015). The Netherlands: Scripture4All Publishing

*IslamAwakened (n.d.).

*Islamic Studies (n.d.).

*Jackson, J. (1970). Introduction To African Civilizations. New York: University Books.

 *Jackson, J (1985). Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization. Baltimore: Black Classic Press.

Jha, G.N. (ed.) (2010). Sanskrit Computational Linguistics. Germany: Springer.

*Jochannan, Y. (1973). Black Man of the Nile and his Family (Students and Researchers Revised and Enlarged ed.). New York: Al-Kebulan Books.

*Jochannan, Y. (1988). Africa: Mother Of Western Civilization (Student’s and researcher’s ed.). Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press.

*Jochannan, Y. (1989). Black Man Of The Nile And His Family (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press.

*Jochannan, Y. (1991). African Origins Of The Major “Western Religions” Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press.

*Jochannan, Y. (2004). Cultural Genocide in the Black and African Studies Curriculum. Baltimore: Black Classic Press

*Jochannan, Y., & Simmonds, G. (2005). The Black Man’s North and East Africa. Baltimore: Black Classic Books.

*Johnson, J.C.D. (1986). African Glory: The Story of Vanished Negro Civilizations. Baltimore: Black Classic Press.

*Johnston, H. (1913). A History Of The Colonization Of Africa By Alien Races, by. S.l.: Cambridge.

*Jones, B. (2018). Dictionary of World Biography (5th ed.). Acton, Australia: Australian National University Press.

*Josephus, F. (1999). The New Complete Works of Josephus (W. Whiston, Trans.). Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications.

*Kamalu, C. (2007). The Little African History Book: Black Africa from the Origins of Humanity to the Assassination of Lumumba and the Turn of the 20th Century. London: Orisa Press.

*Kapoor, B.N. (2007). Advanced Hindi-English Dictionary. New Delhi: Prabhat Prakashan.

Khalifa, R. (1992). Qur’an: The Final Testament : (authorized English version). Fremont, CA: Islamic Productions.

*Khan, M.M. (1994). Summarized Sahih Al Bukhari. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Maktaba Dar-us-Salam. Retrieved from

*Khonsu. (n.d.). Retrieved from 

*Klysov, A. (2014). Reconsideration of the “Out of “Africa” Concept as Not Having Enough Proof. Advances in Anthropology, 4(1), 18-37.

*Knight, M. (n.d.). An Introduction to Haplogroups: An Interactive Activity. Retrieved from

*Knoblauch, C. (2012). The Ruler of Kush (Kerma) at Buhen during the
Second Intermediate Period. Oxford: Infomation Press.

*Kraemer, B., Liszka, K (2016) Evidence for Administration of the
Nubian Fortresses in the Late Middle Kingdom: The Semna Dispatches.

*Krauskopf, J. (1887). The Jews and Moors in Spain. Kansas City: M. Berkowitz

Kumar, S. (2018) An Etymological Dictionary of Tamil Loanwords in English, Hindi, Sanskrit, Greek, Minoan and Cypro-Minoan Languages. India: Pazhanthamizh.

*Larcher, P. (1829). Larcher’s Notes on Herodotus: Historical and critical remarks on the history of Herodotus. London: Valpey

*Lane, E. (1863). An Arabic-English Lexicon. London: Williams and Norgate.

*Lane-Poole, S., & Gilman, A. (1911). The Story of the Moors in Spain. New York: Putnam’s Sons.

*Latif, A. (2019). Development of Pharmacology (Ilmul Advia) During Abbasid Period and its Relevance to Modern Age. India: Prowess Publishing.

*Leach, W.B. (1844). Lectures on Fulfilled Prophecy. London: Ward & Co.

*Lesko, B. (1999). The Great Goddesses of Egypt. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

*Leslau, W. (2006). Comparative Dictionary of Ge’ez. Germany: Harrassowitz Verlag.

*Lewis, B. (1995). The Middle East. New York: Scribner.

*Lewis, J. D. (2007). North Carolina Counties – 1830 [Map]. In Http:// Retrieved from

*Llorente, J. (1827). The History Of The Inquisition Of Spain, from the time of its establishment to the reign of Ferdinand VII Composed from the original documents of the Archives of the Supreme council, and from those of subordinate tribunals of the Holy office. (2d ed.). London: Printed for G.B. Whittaker.

*Llorente, J.A. (1826). History of the Spanish Inquistion: Abridged from the Original Work of M. Llorente, Late Secretary of that Institution. (L.Gallois, Trans). Kessinger Publishing

*Lockyer, N. (1894). The Dawn of Astronomy. A Study of the Temple-worship and Mythology of the Ancient Egyptians. London: Cassell & Company.

Lyle, A. (2013). Revised Chronology of the Bible. Bloomington, IN: Authorhouse.

*Magellan Corporation. (2000). The Spread of Islam, 622 – 750 CE. map, Santa Barbara, CA.

Magli, G. (2013). Architecture, Astronomy and Sacred Landscape in Ancient Egypt (p. 193). New York:Cambridge University Press.

*Majid, A. (2009). We are all Moors: Ending centuries of crusades against Muslims and other minorities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Manetho. (1964). Manetho; with an English Translation (W. G. Waddell, Trans.). Aberdeen, UK: The University Press.

*Marable, M., & Aidi, H. (eds.) (2009). Black Routes to Islam. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.

Marah, J. (1998). African People in the Global Village: An Introduction to Pan African Studies. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.

*Massey, G. (2007). A Book of the Beginnings (Vol. II). New York: Cosimo Classics.

*McClintock, J., & Strong, J. (1873). Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, Ecclesiastical Literature (Vol. III). New York: Harper & Brothers.

*McKinney, A. (2007). Mohammed: The Myths. Lincoln, NE: IUniverse.

*Meakin, B. (1901). Land of the Moors: A Comprehensive Description. London: S. Sonnenschein &, Lim.

*Melville, H. (1863). Ignorant Learned ; or, Researches after “The Long Lost” Mysteries of Free-Masonry. London: T.C. Newby.

*Menahem, A. (2009). Historical Encyclopedia of Natural and Mathematical Sciences (Vol. 1). Berlin: Springer.

*Mendez FL, Krahn T, Schrack B, et al. “An African American Paternal Lineage Adds an Extremely Ancient Root to the Human Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree”. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2013;92(3):454-459. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.02.002.

*Meri, J.W. (Ed). (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia (Vol. I). New York: Routledge.

*Mighty Warrior Tariq Ibn Ziyad Leads Islamic Conquest of Spain This Day in 711. (2016, April 30). Retrieved from

Milwood, R. (2012). African Humanity. UK: Xlibris Corporation.

Moeller, L. (2008). The Exodus Case (3rd ed.). Copenhagen: Scandinavia Publishing House.

*Momen, M. (1985). Introduction to Shiʻi Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Moore, K. L. (2008). Freemasonry, Greek Philosophy, the Prince Hall Fraternity, and the Egyptian (African) World Connection. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

*Moorish Architecture in Spain. (n.d.). Retrieved from

*Muhammad, F. & E. Nation of Islam Flag. 1934. Detroit.

*Muir, W. (1877). The Life of Mahomet: From original sources (new ed., p. 571). London: Smith, Elder.

*Nazer, A. (2012). Sense And Sensibility In Islam: Linguistics, context and rationality. S.l.: Xlibris.

*Nielson L. (2021). Music and Musicians in the Medieval Islamicate World: A Social History. UK: Bloomsbury Publishing.

*Nederhof, M. (2006). Semneh stela marking southern boundary under Sisostris III. Retrieved from:

*Nelson, T. (2014). All the Names in the Bible. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

*Newton, R.H. (1884). The Book of the Beginnings: A Study of Genesis.
London: G.P. Putnam & Sons.

*”North Carolina Deaths, 1931-1994,” database, FamilySearch ( February 2018/), Nathaniel Edward Jackson, 31 May 1956; citing Laurinburg, Scotland, North Carolina, cn13381, State Department of Archives and History, Raleigh; FHL microfilm 1,927,385.

*Northrup, D. (2017). Seven Myths of Africa in World History. Indianapolis: Hackett.

*Nubian Village Trip by Motorboat in Aswan [Photograph found in Nubian Village, TripAdvisor]. (n.d.). Retrieved from

*Ojeda-Mata, M. (2018). Modern Spain and the Sephardim: Legitimizing Identities. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

*Omar, A.M. (2005). Dictionary of the Holy Qur’an (2nd ed.). Hockessin, DE: Noor Foundation International.

Ongsotto, R. (2002). World History Module-based Learning (1st ed.). Philippines. Rex Printing.

*Osborn, W. (1854). Monumental History of Egypt (vol. ii). London: Binns and Goodwin.

*Page, M. (2003). Colonialism: An international, social, cultural, and political encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

*Palmer, R.R., Colton, J. (2007). A History of the Modern World (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

*Parfitt, T. (2013). Black Jews in Africa and the Americas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Parker, G. W. (1981). The Children of the Sun. Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press.

*Parwez, G. (2010). Exposition of the Holy Qurān. Lahore: Tolu-e-Islam Trust.

*Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, The. (Vol. IX). (1837). London: Knight.

*Penprase, B.E. (2011). The Power of Stars: How celestial observations have shaped civilization. New York: Springer Verlag.

*Perrot, G. (1884). The General Characteristic of Chaldaeo-Assyrian Civilization. In A History of Art in Chaldaea and Assyria (Vol. I) (trans. Armstrong, W). Library of Alexandria.

Perry, R.L. (1893). The Cushite, Or, The Descendents of Ham: As Found in the Sacred Scriptures. Springfield, MA: Willey.

Perry, W. J. (1923, November 24). The Origin of Magic and Religion. The Spectator, 27. Retrieved from

*Peters, F.E. (1994). Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. Albany: State University of New York Press.

*Phillips, J. (1997). Ancient Egypt, The Aegean, and the Near East: Studies in Honour of Martha Rhoads Bell (vol. I). San Antonio, TX: Van Siclen Books.

*Phillipson, D. (1985). African Archaeology (3rd ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

*Picardo, M. & Taieb, A. (2010). Vitiligo. Berlin: Springer.

*Quick, A. (2009, March 17). Melungeons: Critical Information About Your Ancestors.

*Quick, A. (2012, June 27). The Lost Kingdom and the History of Al-Andalus.

*Raof, H. (2010). Schools of Qur’anic Exegesis: Genesis and Development. New York: Routledge.

*Rashad, A. (1995). Islam, Black Nationalism, and Slavery: A detailed history. Beltsville, MD: Writers’s Inc.

*Rashid, H. (2005). Our African Identity. Accra: Media Graphics & Press.

*Razwy, S. (1997). A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims C.E. 570 to 661. Stanmore, Middlesex, U.K.: World Federation of KSI Muslim Communities Islamic Centre.

Reader, C. (1997). Khufu Knew the Sphinx: A Reconciliation of the Geological and Archaeological Evidence for the Age of the Sphinx and a Revised Sequence of Development for the Giza Necropolis. [Scholarly project].

Regulski, I. (2007). An Early Dynastic Rock Inscription at El-Hosh. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 93, 254-258. Retrieved from

*Rhodes, M. (2004). The Middle East in Bible Prophecy. Cincinnati: United Church of God

*Ripley, G. (1863). The New American Cyclopaedia: A popular dictionary of general knowledge. New York: D. Appleton and Company.

*Rodriguez, P. (ed.) (2007). Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion (vol. 2). West Port, CT: Greenwood Press.

Rogers, J.A. (1965). The Five Negro Presidents. New York

*Rogers, J.A. (1968). Sex and Race, Volume I. St. Petersburg, FL.

Romero, S. (2005, October 29). Hispanics Uncovering Roots as Inquistion’s ‘Hidden’ Jews. Retrieved from

*Ruane, M. (2019, January 20). When few enslaved people in the United States could write, one man wrote his memoir in Arabic. Washington Post. Retrieved from

Saenz-Cambra, C. (n.d.). “The Abbasid Dynasty: The Golden Age of Islamic Civilization” . Saylor Foundation. Retrieved from

*Safiya, K. (2003). Moon Goddess. New York: iUniverse.

* Sahih Bukhari (n.d.). Retrieved from

*Said, O. I., Dwight, T., Cotheal, H., Kebe, L. & Omar Ibn Said Collection. (1831) The life of Omar ben Saeed, called Morro, a Fullah Slave in Fayetteville, N.C. Owned by Governor Owen. [?] [Manuscript/Mixed Material] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

*Sanchez, D. (2013, July 02). Archives, DNA and Oral Histories prove Jewish Ancestry among Latinos. Retrieved from

*Sand, S., & Lotan, Y. (2009). The Invention of the Jewish People (English ed.). London: Verso.

*Scheitlin T., & McVeigh, R. (n.d.). Parting the waters, Part 1: The physics of a land bridge. Retrieved from

*Schorsch, J. (2009). Swimming the Christian Atlantic. Leiden: Brill.

*Scolnick, J., & Kennedy, N. (2003). From Anatolia to Appalachia: A Turkish-American dialogue. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press.

*Scott, S. (1904). History of the Moorish Empire in Europe. Philadelphia: Lippincott

Scully, N., & Wolf, L. (2007). Shamanic Mysteries of Egypt: Awakening the healing power of the heart. Rochester, Vt.: Bear &.

*Sébah, J. P. (ca. 1863). 215 Sphinx Hycsos (Musée Ghizeh) [Photograph]. Upper Scrapbooks Collection, Boston Public Library, Boston In T. W. Vaughn (Comp.).

*Sébah, J. P. (ca. 1863). Statues of Shepherd Kings [Photograph]. Upper Scrapbooks Collection, Boston Public Library, Boston In T. W. Vaughn (Comp.).

*SG de Museos Estatales. (n.d.). Red Digital de Colecciones de Museos de Espa. Retrieved from

*Shaw, I. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

*Simons, G. (2016). Saudi Arabia: The Shape of the Client Feudalism. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

*Simpson, R. L. (1850). Half length formal portrait of “Uncle Moreau” [Omar ibn Said]. New Haven, CT: Randolph Linsly Simpson African-American collection, Beinecke Library, Yale University.

*Slavery. (1916). In New International Encyclopedia (2nd ed., Vol. 21). New York: Dodd, Meade.

Smith, E. (1814). A Vocabulary, Hebrew, Arabic, And Persian. London: Printed by A.J. Valpy.

Smith, S. (1991). Askut and the Role of the Second Cataract Forts. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 28, 107-132. doi:10.2307/40000574

*Smith, W. (ed.) (1872). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (Vol. I). London: Spottiswoode.

*Souaiaia, A. (trans.) (2001). Profiling the Islamic Civilization: A History of the Legislative, Judicial, & Executive Branches. San Jose, CA: Writers Club Press.

*Sozomen (1855). History of the Church From A.D. 324 to A.D. 440. (Trans. Walford, E.). London: Bohn.

*“Sphinx, as seen from Mandalay Bay” [Photograph found in TripAdvisor , Las Vegas, NV]. (n.d.). Retrieved from

*Spielvogel, J.J. (2015). Western Civilisation, Alternate Volume: Since 1300. Stamford, CT: Cenage.

*Sprenger, A. (1851). Life of Mohammad: From Original Sources. Allahbad: Presbyterian Mission Press.

Sprenger, A. (1872). The Ishmaelites, and the Arabic Tribes who Conquered their Country. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 6, 1-19.

*Steingass, F. (1884). The Students Arabic-English Dictionary. London: Crosby Lockwood & Son.

*Stobart, J. (1901). Islam & Its Founder. New York: Young & Co.

*Tacca, P. (1623). Monumento dei quattro Mori (Monument of the four Turkish prisoners). Livorno, Italy

Tacitus. C. (1897). The Annals of Tactus, Books I-IV (The Oxford Translation Revised, with Notes). Philadelphia: McKay.

*Temple, R. (1903). Origin of the Qoran. Indian Antiquary, A Journal of Oriental Research, XXXII, 127-136.

Thomas, B. (1937). The Arabs. London: Thornton Butterworth

*Thomas, D. & Mallett, A. (eds.) (2010). Christian-Muslim Relations. A Bibliographical History (Vol. II). Netherlands: Brill.

*Thompson, G. (2006). Secret Voyages to the New World: Nine true adventures from the forbidden chronicles of American discovery. Seattle: Misty Isles.

*Tikuye, M. (2000). Insight into Ethiopia. USA: Xulon Press.

*Turfe, T.A. (2015). Know and Follow the Straight Path. Bloomington, IN: IUniverse.

*Turkey Flag. (n.d.). Retreived from

*Uhlemann, M. (1858). Three Days in Memphis; Or, Sketches of the Public and Private Life of the Old Egyptians. Philadelphia: Lippincott & Co.

*Uriyah, G. (ed.) (2016). The Covenant: 5th Edition: An Integrated Translation & Transliteration of the Hebraic Scriptures. (n.p.): Strategic Book Publishing.

*van Rensselaer, IV, J. (n.d.). Mut Precinct. Brooklyn Museum.

*Van Sertima, I. (ed.) (1993). Golden Age of the Moor. USA: Journal of African Civlization Ltd.

Velez, C., Palamara, P.F., Guevara-Aguirre, J. et al. The impact of Converso Jews on the genomes of modern Latin Americans.  Human Genetics (2012) 131: 251.

*Versteegh, C.(1997). The Arabic Language. New York: Columbia University Press.

*Vicchio, S. (2008). Biblical Figures in the Islamic Faith (p. 3). Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock.

*Waddington, G., & Hanbury, B. (1822). Journal of a Visit to Some Parts of Ethiopia. London: John Murray.

*Waldman, C., & Mason, C. (2006). Moors. In Encyclopedia of European Peoples. New York: Info Base.

*Wasilewska, E. (2000). Creation Stories of the Middle East. London: Jessica Kingsley

West, J.A. (1993) Serpent in the Sky: The High Wisdom of Ancient Egypt. Wheaton, IL: Theosophical Publishing House.

*West, L. (2009). Our Common African Genesis (2nd ed.). New York: Vantage Press

*White, B. (2013). Khonsu-Djheuty [Photograph]. Egypt, The Michael C. Carlos Museum, Emory University, Atlanta.

*Williams, H. (1798, October 1). History of an Emigrant Family. New Jamaica Magazine, 201-208.

Williams, W. (1789). Primitive History, from the Creation to Cadmus. Chichester: J. Seagrave.

*Windsor, R. (1988). From Babylon to Timbuktu: A history of the ancient Black races including the Black Hebrews. Phila.: Windsor’s Golden Series Publications.

*Winters, C. (2010). The Kushite Spread of Haplogroup R1*-M173 from Africa to Eurasia. Chicago: Uthman dan Fodio Institute.

*Yare, B. (2001). The Middle Kingdom Egyptian Fortresses in Nubia.

*Zakaria, R. (2004). Indian Muslims: Where have they gone wrong? Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.

*Zaydan, J (1907). Umayyads and ‘Abbasids, being the fourth part of Jurji Zaydan’s History of Islamic Civilization; (Vol. IV) (D. Margoliouth, Trans.). Leyden: E.J. Brill, imprimerie orientale.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s