*Paths of the Jews from Iberia to the Americas**
In 1492, the Jews were the first to be expelled from Spain. Many fled to neighboring Portugal, but were eventually ordered to leave the country and to leave their children behind, so they could be made Christians.
Later, they were given the option to convert to Christianity as a family, or have their children taken away. Many of those who refused to convert were “rounded up and sent off”, some to the New World.
“Toward the end of the fifteenth century, King Manoel of Portugal pressed possibly two thousand Jewish youths into service and sent them as forced settlers to the Island of São Tomé off the Atlantic coast of southern Africa.” In the mid-seventeenth century, the Portuguese forced Jews, whom they had banished to Angola for alleged crimes, into slavery.
Others went to one of many Portuguese colonial possessions in West Africa, including Angola.
Many Andalusian Jews were sold into the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade from São Tomé (San Thome) and Angola.
Various branches of haplogroup L3, which arose in East Africa and were carried across the Red Sea to Arabia, were later carried to the Americas during the Atlantic slave trade.
Haplogroup L3e is found among African-Americans and Brazilians, an indication that their ancestors may have originated in Angola.
Many other Jews converted to Christianity to avoid expulsion and execution, but were still tormented by Spanish inquisitors and fled to the New World.
**Paths of Muslims from Iberia to the Americas**
Muslims (Moors) were expelled from Spain through the early 17th century, many of whom fled into West Africa, and were enslaved and transported by ship to the Americas upon their capture.
Others initially fled into neighboring France and later emigrated to South Carolina.
Others sailed to the Americas and were absorbed into indigenous American nations.
In North America under the Spanish and the British, some Jews, Moors, and Turks were reduced to slavery.
Below, a 17th century artist’s depiction of 17th century Turkish prisoners.
Omar ibn Said, who was a Muslim enslaved in Fayetteville, NC., was “an Arab by birth of royal blood”, and was identified as a Moor. (Marable 2009, p. 5) Said wrote his autobiography in Arabic. (Ruane 2019)
Below, a page from Omar bin Said’s autobiography written in Arabic in 1831(?), currently held by the United States Library of Congress.
Omar ibn Said is pictured below.
Many of the Muslims transported to the Caribbean and South America as slaves by the Spaniards, escaped captivity and established their own communities. They were known as Cimarrones or Maroons, and their communities were known as Quilombos.
Below, Los Mulatos de Esmeraldas (1599), by Andrés Sánchez Gallque.
“Europe, Africa and America are present in this work in which an indigenous painter, Andrés Sánchez Gallque, uses Western pictorial language to convey to the King of Spain the image of the submission to the Crown of a part of the population known as “cimarrones”, [who] fled from Spanish ships that had been wrecked on the Pacific coast, becoming caciques [chiefs] of the indigenous population.” — Source: SG de Museos Estatales (translated via translate.google. com)
**Loss of Identity in America**
Over time, many Andalusians culturally and/or genetically mixed with the dominant American culture and lost their identity.
“The impact of Converso Jews on the genomes of modern Latin Americans”, Human Genetics (February 2012, Volume 131, Issue 2, pp 251–263)
“Archives, DNA and Oral Histories prove Jewish Ancestry among Latinos”, Dr. Dell Sanchez.
** MELUNGEONS **
Previously, Coppee (p. 446) stated, after first taking refuge in France from the Spanish inquisition, some Moors emigrated to South Carolina. Below, is a Tennessee court case involving their descendants.
In the “Celebrated Melungeon Case” (Jack vs Foust), Chattanooga, Tennessee, 1872/1874(?), attorney Lewis Shepherd successfully established that his Melungeon client descended from the early Carthaginians.
According to accounts of Shepherd’s memoirs, Melungeons emigrated to South Carolina from Europe around the time of the American revolutionary war. They later relocated to Tennessee, after South Carolinian’s began denying them privileges usually accorded to white people.
Goins, from Moore County, NC, and Jackson families are referenced in the Shepherd trial. The author of the present work descends from Goins’ and Jacksons on the maternal side of the family.
My Great-great-grandmother Fannie Goins married my Great-great-grandfather Isaiah Jackson. Their son, Nathaniel Jackson, Sr., was born in Carthage, Moore County, North Carolina, in 1885. Below, the death record of Nathaniel Jackson, Sr,. (Note: Goins is misspelled on the record. Sensitive family information has been concealed.)
The following map (Lewis 2007) shows, North Carolina counties in 1830. Carthage, Moore County, is located slightly South of the map’s center.
Goins and Jackson are also included among the common Melungeon surnames given by Imam Abdullah Hakim Quick in the following video, “Melungeons: Critical Information About Your Ancestors”.
“The term “Melungeon” itself turned out to be and intriguing piece of evidence: what an appropriate self-description for people who couldn’t attend school, couldn’t vote, couldn’t own property, and could not step foot in a courtroom.” (Scolnick, J. 2003)
Dr. Yosef Ben Jochannan, on the current whereabouts and condition of the descendants of the Kushites Arabians, Israelites, and African Moors (collectively known as “Moors”) from al Andalus.
Thus further fulfilling Biblical prophecy. Genesis 15:13 (AKJV) reads,
“. . . Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years“.
The year 1619 CE through the year 2019 CE equals four hundred (400) years.
Deuteronomy 28:68 (AKJV) reads, “And the Lord shall bring thee into Egypt again with ships…”.
Pictured below, Egyptian obelisks at Karnak Temple in Egypt (left), the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. (right).
Below, the Egyptian styled pyramid topped with the “All Seeing Eye”, and the Great Seal of the United States, found on the U.S. one dollar bill.
Below, Egyptian Horus (Heru) falcon relief (left), the Great Seal of the United States (right).
Pictured below, The Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt (top) (Encyclopædia Britannica, n.d.), and, Sphinx, as seen from Mandalay Bay (TripAdvisor, n.d.) in Las Vegas, NV, U.S.A (bottom).
“. . . and there ye shall be sold unto your enemies for bondmen and bondwomen . . .” — Deuteronomy 28:68
Below, Advertisement card for the “Great Negro Mart” in Memphis, Tennessee (1859-1860), on display at the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Washington, D.C.
Along the top margin the card reads, “GREAT/ NEGRO MART, / No. 87, ADAMS STREET, / MEMPHIS, — TENN. / The undersigned would announce to the community at large, that they will keep/constantly on hand a/ GENERAL ASSORTMENT OF NEGROES/ AT PRIVATE SALE AND AT AUCTION. / They will also receive on commission (to Board or for Sale) any Negroes consigned/to their care. / All sales warranted as represented. / HILL, WARE & CHRISP.”
The term “Negro” is derived from Portuguese and Spanish.
In summary, Kushites built an ancient inter-continental civilization that spanned from the Nile to India. They brought civilization to Egypt, liberation to Africa and Palestine, and destruction to the Roman Empire. They are the source of the world’s major religions and innovators of the arts, mathematics, and science. They are the ancestors of many of the people in North and South America and the Caribbean, known today as, “Blacks” and “Latinos”.
Below, family DNA results (y-chromosome J2-m172) of the author of this work, from the National Geographic Genographic Project (NGGP). The more recent migration patterns are solid white, older migrations are transparent.
In the above mapping of y-chromosome J2-m172, the older migration patterns correspond with the territory of ancient Kush, as mentioned in by the following source in chapter 1.
The more recent migration patterns correspond with the spread of Islam in 7th – 8th century CE, as shown in the map below.
Below, the same NGGP map from above with geographic labels added.